Właściwy dobór ciśnienia i poprawna eksploatacja opony.

sty 05 2022
Małgorzata Kowalczyk

Każdy kto użytkuje opony wie, jak olbrzymi wpływ ma ciśnienie na prawidłową eksploatację i bezpieczeństwo, jak podsterowny lub nadsterowny jest samochód z nieprawidłowym ciśnieniem w oponach, szczególnie na zakrętach i podczas hamowania.

Dlatego dość często zadawane jest pytanie: jakie powinno być prawidłowe ciśnienie w oponach?

Bardziej skomplikowana jest odpowiedź dla użytkowników opon rolniczych i przemysłowych. Na oponach samochodów osobowych i ciężarowych producenci dosyć szczegółowo określą wartości robocze ciśnienia w oponach, zapisane też w instrukcji albo na tabliczkach {klapy wlewu paliwa} lub na wewnętrznej części słupka w samochodzie.

Uwaga!!! Ciśnienie zawsze sprawdza się na zimnej oponie, czyli po jeździe, opona sprawdzana powinna być pozostawiona na 2 do 3 godzin w celu schłodzenia do temperatury otoczenia. Natomiast w zimę ciśnienie w oponie może spadać 0,2 bar wraz z obniżaniem się co klika stopni temperatury poniżej zera, dlatego wymagana jest większa częstotliwość kontroli ciśnienia w oponie w czasie zimy. Informacji w internecie na temat ciśnienia w oponach osobowych jest tak dużo, że ja postanowiłem nie rozpisywać się na ten temat.

Znacznie mniej pisze się o oponach przemysłowych, bo tu producenci opon zalecają używanie tabel zgodnych z zaleceniami firmy, która dostarcza opony do maszyn. Jest jednak parę cech wspólnych jeśli chodzi o ładowarki, wozidła, koparki, wózki widłowe itp., to przede wszystkim wysokość ciśnienia {podawana w kilo paskalach [100kPa] = wartość 1 bar}. Ma ono wpływ na nośność opony czyli ile kilogramów i przy jakiej prędkości będzie można bezpiecznie przewozić, nie narażając opony na przeciążenie i przedwczesne zużycie lub tak zwany – wystrzał opony, bardzo szybką utratę ciśnienia, które powoduje rozdarcie opony.

W zależności od rodzaju opony i przede wszystkim producenta maszyny stosujemy inne ciśnienie. Dobieramy je indywidualnie według tabeli, którą przygotowuje koncern oponiarski wraz z producentem maszyn budowlanych. Większość użytkowników nie wie, że w jednym rozmiarze opony np. 23,5R25 jest kilka wzorów bieżnika oraz różnią się składem mieszanki gumowej tak aby jak najbardziej dopasować się do czynności, które będzie wykonywała maszyna, czyli zakresu prac np. w kopalni odkrywkowej, a nie tylko kopiemy piach czy kamień, który różni się masą własną np. 1m3 kamienia bazaltowego czy granit waży około 1,8 tony natomiast 1m3 żwiru waży około 1,4 tony.

Ładowarki oprócz masy własnej dźwigają też urobek w łyżkach liczony w metrach sześciennych, który różni się ciężarem ze względu na frakcje czyli wielkość i kształt, co jeszcze bardziej komplikuje dobór odpowiedniego ciśnienia w kołach. Jest jednak pewna zasada, której przestrzegać należy zawsze: ciśnienie w przednich kołach ładowarki powinno być wyższe o 0,75 do 1,5 bar w stosunku do tylnych kół z powodu łyżki, która z urobkiem obciąża bardziej przednią oś w ładowarce, np. ładowarka L110H na oponach 23,5R25 w przednich kołach zalecane ciśnienie powinno być 4,25 bar, a z tyłu 2,75 bar. To oczywiście uśredniony przykład, bo nie wiemy jaki zakres pracy będzie wykonywała maszyna, inna będzie przyczepność kół ładowarki w miękkim gruncie, a inna na utwardzonym terenie, jaka będzie waga urobku, z jaką prędkością będzie poruszała się ładowarka, na jak długim odcinku będzie przewoziła urobek.

Przykładowy dobór ciśnienia w kołach przemysłowych

Jak widać trudno dać jednoznaczną odpowiedź na pytanie o prawidłowe ciśnienie w oponach przemysłowych wielkogabarytowych zawsze lepiej to skonsultować z serwisem.

Podobnie jak w przypadku „opon przemysłowych” w oponach rolniczych najlepiej dopasować ciśnienie według tabeli podawanej przez producenta opony, mimo że jest wielu producentów, tabele niewiele się różnią. Chodź lepiej korzystać z właściwej od danego producenta opony.

Pamiętać należy, aby rozróżniać opony diagonalne od opon radialnych, bo mają inną budowę, a przede wszystkim inny promień ugięcia. W ciągnikach rolniczych inaczej niż w ładowarkach jest też obciążany przód, na przykład z ładowaczem czołowym tak zwany TUR-1, a inaczej tył traktora obciążony maszynami typu pługi itp. dlatego w zależności od rodzaju prac, ciśnienie w oponach może być większe raz z przodu, a raz z tyłu.

Aby dobrać właściwe ciśnienie do zakresu prac najlepiej obrazuje to kalkulator opon rolniczych premium i trzeba wziąć pod uwagę kilka parametrów:

– marka i rozmiar opony,

– nazwa ciągnika rolniczego, producent i model,

– rozstaw osi traktora,

– odległość od osi traktora do środka ciężkości urządzenia zintegrowanego z ciągnikiem.

Przykładowy dobór ciśnienia w oponach rolniczych

Po wpisaniu danych do kalkulatora mamy podane jakie jest prawidłowe ciśnienie przy jakiej prędkości i jaka jest nośność opony czyli obciążenie na jedno koło lub dwa koła bliźniacze.

To tyle na temat teorii, a w życiu jak zawsze! a prościej się nie da?

Rolnicy nie zawsze mają miernik do mierzenia ciśnienia, więc najprostszą metodą jest sprawdzenie, jeśli ciągnik z zestawem, którym zamierzamy pracować jest opuszczony czy obciążony, a trzy klocki opierają się o podłoże i na boku jest lekkie ugięcie opony to ciśnienie zbliżone jest do prawidłowego, tyczy się to przede wszystkim opon radialnych.

Należy pamiętać, że na jednej osi musi być takie samo ciśnienie w obu kołach ale w zależności, która oś jest dociążona bardziej, ta z reguły powinna mieć większe ciśnienia w oponie. Inne też powinny być wartości ciśnień podczas prac polowych, a inne podczas transportu ale i tu najlepiej konsultować to z dobrym serwisem lub przedstawicielem producenta opon.

Oczywiście nie wyczerpuje to odpowiedzi na wszystkie pytania ale Wy pytacie MY odpowiadamy, zachęcam do zadawania ciekawych pytań.

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